Imagine one day you find dark-color urine coming out of your body; you will panic, obviously. However, this can be caused due to the presence of blood in the urine, since the urine color can range from pale yellow to brown and the dark color might be an indication of a medical condition called hematuria.
The presence of blood in the urine is known as Hematuria. It can be caused if there is something wrong with your kidney or urinary tract.
Urine is the filtered waste from the blood that passes the kidney and it says a lot about your health; abnormal urine color indicates an unhealthy condition of the kidney or urinary system.
It is highly recommended that you visit a doctor immediately if you find something unusual about your urine; they will run some tests to diagnose the actual cause behind this condition.
If you can see blood in your urine, it is known as gross hematuria.
If a doctor has to check your urine under a microscope to find the blood in it then it is known as microscopic hematuria.
The reason behind hematuria is the discharge of blood into urine due to problems with the kidney or urinary tract. Following problems can cause hematuria:
- Urinary tract or Kidney infection (pyelonephritis). The infection that starts in the urethra or bladder can travel to the kidney and spread, It causes a discharge of blood or pus in the urine, back pain, vomiting, and fever.
- Kidney or bladder stones. Minerals and acid salts concentrate and become stones over time. They can cause extreme pain if they block the urine. When they grow in size, they can harm the lining of the kidney or urethra which results in hematuria. 1
- Acute Kidney Injury. The kidney gets damaged and stops working all of a sudden which damages the kidney itself and other organs of the body too. This condition is fatal and requires immediate treatment.
- Kidney or bladder cancer. Cancer spreads and interferes with the kidney or bladder function. Common symptoms are hematuria and lower back pain. 2
- Prostate enlargement. When the prostate gland enlarges it puts pressure on the urinary system (bladder, kidney); this causes decreased kidney function, infection, and bladder stones. 3
- Several diseases that are inherited from the family are also known to cause hematuria. These include sickle anemia, nephritis, and polycystic kidney disease. 4, 5
- Certain medicines such as heparin (blood thinner), aspirin (anticoagulant), and penicillin (anti-cancer drug). 6
- Extreme exercise or sports injury can also lead to gross hematuria.
What is the treatment of hematuria?
If you are suffering from gross hematuria, then the doctor will run a test to find any kind of urinary tract infection and treat it with antibiotics.
If it’s microscopic hematuria, then the doctor will test the urine to check kidney function and any kind of infection in the kidney or urinary tract. Sometimes, a kidney biopsy is also required to check for any signs of damage or disease.
If kidney stones are causing the hematuria then removing the stones will treat the problem and if cancer is the cause then treating cancer will treat the blood discharge in the urine.
The most important part is to find the cause of the hematuria, once the cause is known then treatment is started accordingly.